Causes of STDs

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 

Abstract

With approximately 350 million new cases each year, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the most widespread infectious diseases in the world and have significant negative effects on social, economic, and health outcomes. Serious complications and sequelae may occur if STDs are not identified and treated at an early stage. The main method of transmission of STDs, which are divided into various groups, is sex contact. Causes of STDs some are fatal, while others only minor, transient symptoms. 

They are brought on by a variety of infectious agents and are dealt with in various methods. Both syphilis and gonorrhea are old diseases. But Chlamydia is now widely spread and the most frequent bacterial STD. Numerous sexually transmitted infections are becoming more resistant to antibiotics, making some regimens ineffective and complicating therapeutic issues. To guarantee that all patients receive sufficient care, a set STD treatment procedure is advised. An important public health intervention is the appropriate treatment of STDs.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Clinical symptoms brought on by microorganisms that can be acquired and transferred through sexual activity are known as sexually transmitted diseases (SDTs). Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and epizoa are the pathogens which cause STDs (Table 1). Even though nonsexual transmission methods are more common, some viruses can nevertheless be sexually transmissible. There are currently more than 35 sexually transmissible diseases, and each virus may have several subtypes with various clinical presentations. 

Since World War II, there has been a decrease in the overall incidence and prevalence of bacterial STDs, including gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, and chlamydial infections. Nevertheless, developing nations continue to have a disproportionately high rate of STD incidence. Unprotected intercourse with an infected partner is by far the biggest risk factor for STDs; they do not spread randomly. The conduct of a person and his or her sex partners affects the prevalence and spread of the virus. An estimated 12 million people around the world contract the disease each year, with poorer nations thought to be the primary locations of most infections.

Pathogens: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, and ectoparasites that can mostly be transferred through sexual contact.

Pathogen
Associated Disease or Syndrome
BACTERIA
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Urethritis, epididymitis, proctitis, cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis, perihepatitis, bartholinitis, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, prepubertal vaginitis, prostatitis (?), accessory gland infection, disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI), chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes, premature delivery, amniotic infection syndrome
Chlamydia trachomatis
All of the above except DGI, plus otitis media, rhinitis, pneumonia in infants, and Reiter’s syndrome
Mycoplasma hominis
Postpartum fever, salpingitis
Treponema pallidum
Syphilis
Gardnerella vaginalis
Bacterial (“nonspecific”) vaginosis (in conjunction with Mycoplasma hominis and vaginal anaerobes, such as Mobiluncus spp)
Haemophilus ducreyi
Chancroid
Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale)
Shigella spp
Shigellosis in homosexual men
Campylobacter spp
Enteritis, proctocolitis
VIRUSES
Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2
AIDS
Herpes simplex virus
Initial and recurrent genital herpes, aseptic meningitis, neonatal herpes
Human papillomavirus (more than 70 types identified)
Condyloma acuminate, laryngeal papilloma, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma, vaginal carcinoma, anal carcinoma, vulvar carcinoma, penile carcinoma
Hepatitis B virus
Acute hepatitis B virus infection, chronic active hepatitis, persistent (unresolved) hepatitis, polyarteritis nodosa, chronic membranous glomerulonephritis, mixed cryoglobulinemia (?), polymyalgia rheumatica (?), hepatocellular carcinoma
Hepatitis A virus
Acute hepatitis A
Cytomegalovirus
Heterophil-negative infectious mononucleosis; congenital CMV infection with gross birth defects and infant mortality, cognitive impairment (e.g., mental retardation, sensorineural deafness); protean manifestations in the immunosuppressed host
Molluscum contagiosum virus
Genital molluscum contagiosum
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus, types I and II
Human T-cell leukemia or lymphoma
Human herpes virus type 8
Kaposi’s sarcoma (?), body cavity lymphoma
PROTOZOA
Trichomonas vaginalis
Trichomonal vaginitis
Entamoeba histolytica
Amebiasis in men who have sex with men
Giardia lamblia
Giardiasis in men who have sex with men
FUNGI
Candida albicans
Vulvovaginitis, balanitis
ECTOPARASITES
Phthirus pubis
Public lice infestation
Sarcoptes scabiei
Scabies

What causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?

STDs can be caused by:

The following are the main sexually transmitted disease causes:

 There are several causes of STDs: Microscopic organisms, counting chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.

What std causes blood in urine in females?

The STD chlamydia affects males and females equally. In females, chlamydia may results in vaginal pain and vaginal discharge also urine pain. Due to that, it causes urinary tract inflammation, and it can become the source of blood in urine. Chlamydia can be cured by using antibiotics but is important to get a healthcare expert’s advice to avoid future unwanted issues. It is advised to get frequent STD testing for anyone who is involved in sexual activity.

Summary

Numerous STDs are treatable, but not all of them are treatable. A few can be life-debilitating, whereas others have less genuine impacts. They are, be that as it may, all caused by an STI. So perfect way”> The most perfect way to anticipate them is to urge routinely screened and hone more secure sex.

All STDs are caused by an STI. These diseases are more often than not transmitted through sexual contact, counting through substantial liquids or skin contact using vaginal, verbal, and butt-centric sex. A few of them never end up with a malady, particularly if they’re treated, and they can indeed go absent on their possess. But if the pathogens that caused the contamination conclusion up harming cells within the body and disturbing its capacities, an STI will advance to an STD. And if you test positive for any STI, look for treatment as long as possible.