Oligospermia - Causes, Diagnosis & treatment

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 


Oligospermia refers to a low sperm count in the semen. Throughout your life, your ejaculate’s sperm count can change. For fertility, a good sperm count is frequently required. Sperm counts at or above 15 million sperm per millilitre (mL) of semen are considered typical by the World Health Organization (WHO). Anything less than that is deemed low and is given the label of oligospermia.


Oligospermia is also known as Oligozoospermia. Poor motility and morphology, which are frequently associated with lower sperm density, represent both qualitative and quantitative flaws in spermatogenesis. Many illnesses and therapies related to reproduction and non-reproduction could be to blame, although the majority of instances are still unexplained (idiopathic). Azoospermia is the medical term for the total lack of sperm.

Table of Contents

Oligospermia causes

Sign and Symptoms of Oligospermia

The inability to conceive a child is the primary indicator of low sperm count. There may be no other visible symptoms or indicators. Signs and symptoms may be brought on by an underlying issue in certain men, such as an inherited chromosomal abnormality, a hormonal imbalance, dilated testicular veins, or a disorder that prevents sperm from passing.

A low sperm count may cause the following symptoms:

Oligospermia Causes

The complex process of producing sperm depends on the normal functioning of the testicles (testes), as well as the hypothalamus and pituitary glands, two brain structures that provide hormones that stimulate sperm production. Once sperm is created in the testicles, it is transported through delicate tubes until it combines with semen and is expelled from the penis. Any of these systems can experience issues that impact sperm production.

Additionally, aberrant sperm morphology, motility, or function issues may arise.

However, the cause of low sperm count is frequently not found.

Several medical conditions and therapies can result in low sperm counts. A few of these are:

Medical Causes of Oligospermia

Environmental Causes of Oligospermia

When overexposed, the following environmental elements may affect sperm function or production:

Risk Factors of Oligospermia

Numerous risk factors are connected to low sperm count and other conditions that can cause low sperm count. They consist of:

Diagnosis of Oligospermia

Severe Oligospermia Treatment

The recommended course of treatment will depend on what caused the oligospermia. By eliminating any drugs or habits that are causing low sperm counts, you may boost your sperm count.

Other causes could require other therapies. For instance,

Frequently Asked Questions

Yes, males can acquire fungal infections, particularly in the genital area. Although it is less frequent in men than in women, men must recognize the signs and seek proper treatment. 

No, fungal infections are not classified as sexually transmitted infections. However, sexual activity can sometimes upset the natural balance, increasing the risk of infection.

While vaginal yeast infections are more frequent in women, they can occur in men as well, mainly through sexual transfer.

For minor yeast infections, over-the-counter antifungal treatments can be beneficial. However, if symptoms persist or worsen, it is essential to seek medical attention.

Stress can impair the immune system, making it more difficult to battle illnesses such as yeast infections.