What is prostate cancer? signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 


Prostate cancer

Cancer that develops in the prostate is known as prostate cancer. The prostate is a small gland in men that resembles a walnut and produces seminal fluid, which nourishes and transports sperm.
One of the oldest prevalent cancers is prostate cancer. In the prostate gland, where they may not do much harm, many prostate tumors develop slowly and are localized. Although some prostate cancers spread slowly and may require little to no therapy, others are aggressive and may spread very quickly.

Table of Contents

What is meant by prostate?

The prostate and seminal vesicles are parts of the male reproductive system. The prostate is around the same size as a walnut. The prostate is a bodily part with a diameter of a walnut. Two more compact pairs of glands, known as seminal vesicles, are joined to the prostates back. In the front of the rectum, below the bladder, is the prostate. It encloses the urethra, a small tube that carries urine from the bladder out through the penis.
The prostate and seminal vesicles primary function is to produce fluid for semen. The sperm goes via the urethra during ejaculation. At the same time, the fluid from the prostate and seminal vesicles simultaneously enter the urethra. Semen is a combination that exits the penis as excretes after passing through the urethra.

Prostate cancer: what is it?

The cause of cancer is the inappropriate development of cells, which interferes with normal cell function in the body and makes it more difficult for the body to function as it should. When abnormal cells start to form and multiply in the prostate gland, prostate cancer begins to spread. Not all tumors and other unusual growths are malignant (cancerous). Some tumors are benign (not malignant).

Prostatecancer develops in this little walnut-shaped region that is found behind the bladder and in the front of the rectum in males and those who were assigned male at birth (AMAB).This tiny gland creates a fluid that combines with semen to keep sperm healthy for conception and fertilization.
The disease of prostate cancer is dangerous. Fortunately, the majority of men with prostate cancer are identified before the disease has spread past the prostate gland. When cancer is treated at this stage, it frequently vanishes.

Prostate cancer in its early stages?

When cancer cells are exclusively identified in the prostate or even slightly outside of it (extraprostatic extension), prostate cancer remains localized and does not spread to other body organs. Prostate cancer is regarded as advanced if it spreads to other bodily parts.

Prostate cancer is typically divided into four phases.

What variations of prostate cancer are there?

If you are given a prostate cancer diagnosis, it is most likely an adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinomas begin in the cells of glands that release fluid, such as your prostate. Rarely, different cell types can develop into prostate cancer.

Less typical prostate tumors include:

Prostate cancer symptoms:

Rarely do symptoms of early-stage prostate cancer appear. As the illness advances, several problems could arise:

Prostate cancer causes

Although there is no known cause of prostate cancer, there are several factors that can raise a mans chance of developing the condition.

Various Tests for Identification of Prostate Cancer

In what way is prostate cancer identified?

Screenings enable the early identification of prostate cancer. If your risk is typical, you’ll probably undergo your first screening procedures at age 55. If you fall into the high-risk category, you could need testing sooner. Screenings typically come to an end at age 70. If screenings reveal you could have prostate cancer, you might require more testing or procedures.

Testing for prostate cancer detection

Methods for prostate cancer diagnosis

Not every prostate cancer patient will need a specific diagnosis. For instance, if your doctor believes that your tumor is developing slowly, they can decide against conducting any additional testing since they don’t think it has to be treated. You could require more tests, such as a biopsy if its more aggressive (growing quickly or spreading).

Management and Treatment

Prostate cancer treatment:

How are these conditions managed or treated?

How you are treated will depend on several factors, including your general health, the extent of the disease, and how quickly it is spreading. Depending on your therapy options, you might work with urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists.

Specific methods employed Surveillance:

Your doctor might decide to watch you rather than treat you if your cancer grows slowly and doesn't spread.

Integrated treatments

Systemic therapy may be recommended by your doctor if the cancer has spread beyond your prostate gland. Systemic therapy circulates drugs through your body to kill cancer cells or stop them from proliferating.

Targeted treatment

A more recent method of treatment called focal therapy eliminates malignancies inside the prostate. If the cancer is low-risk and hasn’t spread, your doctor might advise this treatment. The majority of these therapies are currently regarded as experimental.

How can prostate cancer be avoided?

Prostate cancer cannot be prevented. Nevertheless, adhering to these guidelines may reduce your risk:

Have frequent prostate exams. According to your risk factors, ask your healthcare professional how frequently you should get checked.


When detected early and treated properly, prostate cancer can frequently be successfully treated. Many patients who receive a diagnosis when the cancer has not gone past the prostate continue to lead healthy lives after therapy for several years. However, in a tiny percentage of cases, the illness can be aggressive as well as swiftly spread across different body parts. According to your risk factors, your healthcare professional can talk about the ideal screening schedule. Depending on how quickly or slowly your cancer is spreading, they can suggest the best course of action.