surgery for testicular torsion

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 

What is Testicular torsion?

surgery for testicular torsion

Torsion of the testicles is a painful disorder. In that, the spermatic cord twists and loses blood supply to the testicle. The spermatic cord supplies blood to the testicles in men, and when this blood supply is stopped, the condition is called testicular torsion. If immediate treatment is not given, the testicle may die. Therefore, treatment, i.e., surgery for testicular torsion, is necessary to prevent permanent damage to the testicles. The testicles function as male reproductive organs and are in charge of hormone and sperm production.

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How serious is Testicular torsion?

This condition may start with only mild symptoms. However, symptoms may also get worse if left untreated.

People affected by epididymitis may experience the following symptoms:

Symptoms of Testicular torsion: -

Testicular torsion is most frequently characterized by a sudden, severe pain on one side of the scrotum. The testicles must be about the same size. If one side gets bigger quickly than the other, that could be a problem. A change in the color of the scrotum, especially redness or darkening, is also a problem. There may not be swelling at the beginning. But very soon after that, the skin of the scrotum becomes swollen and red.
Nausea and vomiting can happen.

Testicular torsion is a medical emergency. Since all the blood for the testes Twisting stops the blood flow as it enters the spermatic cord. If the blood supply is not restored within 6 hours, the testicles will shrink (atrophy). Without blood, the testicle could die (aka heart attack). The scrotum will be extremely sensitive, puffy, and red when the testis dies. Often, the patient will not be able to feel comfortable.

Any pain or discomfort in the testicles is a sign of immediate medical attention. Call your doctor even without swelling or skin discoloration.
A slow-onset pain in the testicles, over many hours or days, may be a sign of torsion. This is less common. Problems urinating, such as burning or frequent urination, are not normal symptoms of torsion. Torsion mostly happens on the left side more than on the right. Most often, there is just one side of torsion. Torsion occurs in both testicles in only 2 out of 100 men who have it. Surgery for testicular torsion is necessary for the
treatment of testicular torsion.

Causes of Testicular torsion: -

Torsion is not a common problem. It happens to about 1 in 4,000 men under the age of 25. It can also happen in older men and newborns.

In most men, the testicle cannot twist because the tissue around it is well attached. Some men are born without the tissue that holds the testicles to the scrotum.

Torsion can occur rarely on both sides. Physical activity does not cause torsion. It can happen while exercising, sitting, standing or even sleeping.

Diagnosis of Testicular torsion: -

Testicular torsion is often detected during a physical examination by a physician. It is also possible to use X-ray tests. Blood flow to the testicles can be monitored using ultrasound and other methods. Your healthcare provider will do additional tests if the urine test reveals a urinary tract infection. He will want to know if the pain is from a testicular or epididymal infection.

Therapy: -

To restore blood supply, it is necessary to untangle the spermatic cord (detorsion). Permanent damage begins after 6 hours of torsion. One study found that almost 3 out of 4 patients need to have their testicles removed (orchidectomy) if surgery is delayed more than 12 hours.
Ideally, you can receive therapy from a urologist. All torsion patients will require surgery. The tendon can be untwisted in the emergency room, but surgery is still required.

During the operation, the urologist unties the testicles and sews stitches to prevent future torsion. This is most often done through the scrotum.

Testicles of newborns with torsion are rarely salvageable. The testes are almost always infarcted (dead). Emergency surgery is not the same for infants. Cases of flipping the other side have occurred in infants shortly after birth. The child would thus be left without testicles. With better anesthesia and  postoperative care, many pediatric urologists will operate within the newborns first several hours or days. The testicle with infarction would be excised, and sutures would be used to prevent torsion of the other testicle.

Surgery for Testicular torsion: -

Testicular torsion is usually treated with surgical surgery or orchiopexy. In rare cases, the doctor may be able to untwist the spermatic cord by hand. This procedure is called manual detorsion.

The operation is performed as quickly as possible to restore blood flow to the testicles. If blood flow is interrupted for more than six hours, testicular tissue can die. The affected testicles would then need to be removed.
Surgical detorsion is performed under general anesthesia. The patient will be asleep and unaware of the procedure.

In this surgery, a small incision is made in the scrotum, and the cord is untangled. Tiny stitches will be used to hold the testicle in place in the scrotum. This prevents it from rotating again. The wound is subsequently stitched shut by the surgeon.

Testicular Torsion Surgery Side Effects: -

To minimize serious consequences, testicular torsion surgery should be performed as soon as possible. Although it can be used to treat testicular torsion, it has a number of negative effects, including:

Infection: -

Almost all surgeries make you susceptible to infections. This is sometimes merely a common side effect of surgery, such as in testicular torsion surgery. Surgery does not always ensure that all damaged testicles are removed.

If this occurs, you may be at risk for a potentially fatal illness known as gangrene. Gangrene is caused by the death of tissue in your body. This occurs when the tissue does not receive enough blood. If left untreated, you may get a shock. And this is considered a medical emergency because it can result in amputations or even death.

Bleeding: -

It is usual for minimal bleeding to occur following surgery. However, severe bleeding can occur in some cases. This could be related to a blood vessel injury. Maybe its because of a drug.

Infertility: -

Despite surgery, both testicles have been damaged. And this will almost certainly lead to infertility. Fertility may not be impaired if one of the testicles is removed.

Cosmetic Deformity: -

An aesthetic abnormality can result after the loss of one or both testicles. And this will very certainly distress you emotionally. However, this issue can be resolved by installing a testicular prosthesis.

Imbalances in Hormones: -

The removal of the testicles can have an effect on the generation of hormones in newborns. Fertility may be impaired in the future since it reduces sperm count. Your body may also begin to produce anti-sperm antibodies, which might reduce the mobility of your sperm.

Testicular torsion Surgery Cost: -

The cost of testicular pain treatment in India varies from place to place. In metropolitan cities, the cost of treatment is relatively higher than in other small cities of India. The price range is from Rs 32,700 to Rs 78,400 for a complete treatment of these symptoms. The price of the treatment also depends on the cause of testicular pain.