symptoms of testes cancer

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 


symptoms of testes cancer

Health is a precious gift. Being aware is the initial step to safeguard it. In the realm of men’s health, “testicular cancer” or “testes cancer” is a topic that needs our attention. Although it might not be a typical topic of conversation, it is essential to understand its symptoms. An early detection can make all the difference in a person’s journey to recovery.

In this article, we will discuss subtle yet significant symptoms of testes cancer that your body may experience. So let’s take the step toward understanding the symptoms of testicular cancer and how it can affect men’s lives.

Let’s first discuss what are testicles.

Table of Contents

Testicles: In Brief

Two small oval-shaped organs in the male reproductive system are called testicles or testes. One testicle is known as a testis. They are present within a loose sac of skin called the scrotum. The scrotum is positioned below the penis.

The primary functions of testicles are,

1. Sperm production:

Testicles play an important role in the production of sperm (tiny cells crucial for utilizing an egg during sexual reproduction).

2.Hormone production:

Testicles also produce male sex hormones such as testosterone. It plays an importantrole in the development of male sexual characteristics like bone density, muscle mass,etc

Thus testicles are vital for both the production of sperm and the regulation of male sexual characteristics.

Now let’s understand what “testes cancer” is.

Testes cancer: What is it?

Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the testicles, which are part of the male reproductive system. Although it is relatively rare compared to other types of cancer, it is most commonly found in younger men (15-35). It usually starts as an abnormal growth or lump in one or both testicles.

Moreover, testicles are made up of numerous types of cells. So each cell can develop one or other types of cancer. So it’s crucial to know the cancer and cell type before any treatment. For this, you must seek medical advice. Because only doctors can detect the type of cancer you may have by looking at the cells under a microscope. According to the stage and type of cancer, various treatment options can be suggested by a doctor
such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy.

What are the Symptoms of Testes Cancer?

Though testes cancer is relatively uncommon but a potentially life-threatening condition. It commonly affects young men. Recognizing symptoms early on is pivotal for successful recovery. Some of the common symptoms of testes cancer are,

1. Testicle lump

It is the most well-known symptom of testes cancer. When lumps or mass is present on the testicles, it is called testicular lumps. These lumps are usually painless but may cause discomfort. It is crucial to perform regular testicular self-exams to identify any
changes in shape, texture, or size. If you detect a lump or any irregularities, consult a doctor immediately.

2. Swelling or Enlargement

Testes cancer can cause enlargement of one testicle. While it’s natural to have one slightly larger testicle than another. However, if you detect a noticeable increase in size or swelling of the testicle, you should speak to a doctor.

3. Heaviness in the Scrotum

A feeling of heaviness or pressure in the scrotum without any physical activity or injury can also be an indication of testicular cancer.

4. Testicular Pain or Discomfort

Some men with testes cancer may experience persistent pain in the testicle or the lower abdomen. This discomfort is often mild but can become severe over time.

5. Fluid Buildup in the Scrotum (Hydrocele) .

Sometimes testicular cancer can cause an accumulation of fluid in the scrotum. This fluid may also lead to swelling in testes which is known as hydrocele. Also, these hydroceles are not always due to cancer.

6. Testis Tumour

It is also one of the common symptoms of testes cancer. A tumor on the testis is called a testis tumor. These tumors often appear painless. Also, not all tumors are cancerous.

7. Dull Ache in the Groin or Lower Back lower

In some cases, testicular cancer can cause a dull ache in the groin or lower back. This pain may not be severe but it can persist for an extended period.

8. Changes in the Breast Tissue

Testes cancer can also produce hormones that lead to breast tenderness or enlargement.

Who is at Risk?

The exact cause of testicular cancer is not clear, but several factors can increase the risk of developing this condition. These risk factors are,

1. Undescended Testicles

Men who were born with one or both testicles not descending into the scrotum or have undescended testicles have a higher risk of developing testicular cancer.

2. Age

Testicular cancer is most commonly diagnosed in young men between the ages of 15 and 35, although it can occur at any age.

3.Family History

Having a family member, especially a father or brother, with a history of testicular cancer can also increase your risk.

4. Race and Ethnicity

Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in men of other racial or ethnic groups.

5. HIV Infection

Men with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) may have an increased risk of testicular cancer.

6. Klinefelter Syndrome

This genetic condition, where a male is born with an extra X chromosome, may raise the risk of testicular cancer.


Alright, we’ve talked about a lot of things today, but let’s keep it simple. Testicular cancer is not something you hear about every day, but if you ever feel something strange in your testicles or they start hurting, remember what we talked about here.

Don’t be scared to tell someone you trust, like your mom, dad, or a teacher. They can help you see a doctor who will check everything out. The good news is, if we catch it early, there’s a really good chance we can make things better.

So, stay aware, be brave, and remember, your health is super important. If something doesn’t feel right down there, don’t wait—let someone know. You’re never alone when it comes to taking care of your health!

Frequently Asked Questions

No, not all testicular lumps are cancerous. Some may be benign, such as cysts or non-
cancerous growths. However, if you notice any unusual lump or change, you should be
examined by an expert healthcare professional.

In advanced stages, testicular cancer may spread to other parts of the body, leading to
symptoms like back pain, shortness of breath, or chest pain. These symptoms can
commonly be seen in the advanced stages of the disease.

No, testicular pain is not always a sign of cancer. It can be caused by various factors,
including injury or infection. However, persistent or unexplained testicular pain should
be evaluated by a doctor.

You can perform a testicular self-exam by gently feeling each testicle for lumps or
changes in size or texture. It's a good idea to do this regularly, perhaps once a month,
to become familiar with your body and detect any changes early.

Testicular cancer itself doesn’t cause changes in sexual function. However, some
treatments for testicular cancer, like surgery or chemotherapy, can have temporary or
long-term effects on sexual function.

Early warning symptoms of testes cancer include changes in the size, shape, or
consistency of the testicles, as well as any pain, discomfort, or swelling that doesn’t go