Teratozoospermia: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 

What is Teratozoospermia?

Teratozoospermia is defined as atypical sperm morphology. It’s a sperm ailment that causes guys affected to provide abnormally shaped sperm. This condition is likewise called Teratospermis. Teratozoospermia is the medical term used to consult unusual sperm morphology due to both illness inside the head, midpiece, and/or tail. Consistent with the requirements posted in 2010 through the World Fitness Agency (WHO), when more than 96% of the sperm he produces are improperly shaped, he has teratozoospermia. If at least 4 % of sperm have a regular form, the male is taken into consideration as fertile. 



Table of Contents

Teratozoospermia according to Kruger's criteria: -

A few laboratories use Kruger’s strict criteria to evaluate a semen pattern in addition to the ones of the WHO.

In line with Kruger’s strict standards, teratozoospermia is present when greater than 85% of spermatozoa have an abnormal form. This criterion is way stricter than the ones published by the WHO.

In other words, the borderline to remember whether a person has teratozoospermia is set at a minimum of 15% of spermatozoa with normal forms instead of 4%, which is the percentage currently established by the WHO.

Teratozoospermia Causes

Teratozoospermia is always linked to male infertility because the aberrant morphology of the sperm prevents them from reaching the egg.

The most common causes of abnormal sperm morphology are as follows:

Diagnosis of Teratozoospermia

A person will not experience any pain whilst he has teratozoospermia. Therefore, the way to diagnose this condition is through a sinogram. In this take a look at a specialist will look at the form of the spermatozoa within the andrology laboratory.

To do this, the professional will stain a drop of semen and examine the morphology of the stained spermatozoa underneath the microscope. The most commonplace way to stain spermatozoa is using methylene blue dye. 

Types of Teratozoospermia

Defects inside the morphology of sperm can be categorized into different types depending on their location – head, midpiece, and/or tail. However, earlier than diagnosing teratozoospermia, all abnormalities are taken into consideration.

After analyzing sperm morphology with a semen evaluation, the professional can decide the sort of teratozoospermia and its grade of severity. For this reason, the Kruger criteria are used, and teratozoospermia is classified into three sorts:

Severe Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia Treatment

Natural treatments for Teratozoospermia

Men with teratozoospermia should change their lifestyle and abandon unhealthy habits such as smoking cigarettes or alcoholic beverages. When it comes to enhancing fertility, eating a well-balanced diet is always important. In particular, foods rich in antioxidants and essential amino acids such as L-carnitine, which improves sperm quality. Omega-3 fatty acids are also abundant in oily seafood, which are very beneficial for male reproductive health. All of these vitamins and nutrients can also be taken in the form of vitamin supplements, such as supplements containing vitamin E, which acts as a powerful antioxidant.

In addition to natural treatments, assisted reproductive technology (ART) can help:

IUI - Intrauterine Insemination: -

IUI, also known as intrauterine insemination, is a first-line ART procedure collecting sperm, washing and concentrating them, and moving the healthiest ones into the woman’s ovaries at the time of ovulation. If a man has mild to moderate teratozoospermia and you and your partner have no other fertility problems, IUI may be a better option for achieving pregnancy.


ICSI, or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, is a step forward from standard IVF. To induce fertilization, the cytoplasm of a woman’s mature egg is injected with a healthy and normal single-living sperm. ICSI can be a successful therapy option for achieving pregnancy in cases of mild to severe teratozoospermia.


IMSI, the intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected sperm, is another advance in the IVF-ICSI procedure. Although the procedure is somewhat like ICSI, it involves a more detailed analysis of the sperm before injection. A high-magnification device is used to determine the morphology of the collected sperm and to transfer only one sperm that is not morphologically defective. IMSI is best for severe cases of teratospermia.

Prevention Strategies for Abnormal Sperm Morphology

The first step in dealing with teratozoospermia will be to change your lifestyle to a healthy one. Teratozoospermia can be treated naturally by eating a diet full of fruits. It is often a highly effective means of removing hazardous sources such as alcohol and tobacco. In addition, routine medical checkups and following your doctor’s advice can help you avoid the disorder.


During the overall research of this condition, the specialist will recommend tests to assess infertility. Men with this condition must consider medical procedures and fertility treatments. 

FAQs related to this condition:

Leukospermia, also called leukocytospermia, is the presence of leukocytes in the semen in awareness of more than 1 million in step with milliliters. The cause of this seminal disease is contamination in the male reproductive tract, which should be treated with antibiotics because it can interfere with spermatogenesis and cause changes that include oligospermia or teratozoospermia.

The following are the features, according to the World Health Organization (WHO): Oval head and regular contour.

      1. Single straight tail
      2. Fixed nucleus
      3. Transparent color

In theory, any sperm that satisfies these criteria has the ability to fertilize the egg and result in a liveable pregnancy.

Teratozoospermia causes male infertility due to a component of sperm. In the first area, the sperm, which may be disproportionately or surprisingly formed, cannot travel well, making it very difficult for them to reach the egg in the woman’s fallopian tube. On the other hand, after they reach the egg, at least one sperm must penetrate it for fertilization to occur. Abnormalities in the sperm head could make this movement difficult. Sooner or later, the sperm with teratozoospermia may be able to give the pregnant being an upward thrust, but then the girl will undergo repeated miscarriages due to genetic changes that may be related to the abnormal sperm. 

Bad sperm morphology generally does not lead to miscarriage once the egg is fertilized and the embryo attaches to the uterus. Another case would be that sperm also contain genetic mutations and abnormal morphology that could lead to miscarriage.

First of all, and if the cause of teratozoospermia is not a specific pathology, a man should follow some rules to change his lifestyle, which can negatively affect his reproductive state. Some men who give up habits like tobacco or alcohol and follow a healthy diet will notice an improvement in sperm quality after about three months.

If all other factors, including the partner’s age, reproductive health, and sperm analysis, are positive, a married couple can conceive naturally.

The absence of healthy spermatozoa with a smooth head, oval head, and complete proportion is the main risk factor for teratozoospermia. Infertility can be caused by sperm with morphological abnormalities that prevent fertilization. However, this risk is completely preventable with proper care and treatment.

Berries contain antioxidant pigments while absorbing free radicals, such as blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, and blueberries. Berries should be included in your diet if you wish to maintain or boost sperm quality. Acupuncture can also increase sperm quality in cases of teratozoospermia, asthenospermia, and oligospermia. However, you need to see a specialist to get effective remedies, as home remedies may not be effective.